Nordic Particle Accelerator School, NPAS2015

Europe/Stockholm
E2311 (Lund University)

E2311

Lund University

Anders Karlsson (Lund University / LTH), Christine Darve (European Spallation Source ESS AB)
Description
We propose a summer school for accelerator physics and technology, in particular intended for students from the northern part of Europe. The Nordic Particle Accelerator School 2015 (NPAS2015) will take place in Lund from August 17-21, 2015. The objective is to ensure future European accelerator expertise that can exploit, develop and improve current and future particle accelerators. The NPAS2015 aims to broaden the opportunities for education in accelerator physics and technology and to introduce students to the field of accelerator physics. Ultimately, we hope to encourage students to conduct their master's / Ph.D. project in accelerator physics. The school is organised by MAX IV Laboratory, European Spallation Source (ESS), Lund, Uppsala, Aarhus, Oslo and Jyväskylä Universities, together with a partnership of several European universities.
agenda
summary
    • 08:45 09:00
      Welcome by Prof. Anders Karlsson 15m
      Speaker: Anders Karlsson (Lund University / LTH)
    • 09:00 09:45
      Introduction to Synchrotron Light Sources 45m
      The electromagnetic radiation produced by accelerated charged particle beams, known as synchrotron light, is a key tool in the characterization of a wide range of matter at the molecular and atomic level. Worldwide about 70 facilities have been built over the past 40 years to produce synchrotron radiation and deliver it to experiments across a wide range of sciences such as physics, chemistry, medicine/biology, and engineering. After briefly introducing the application of synchrotron radiation for the study of materials, interfaces, and surfaces, the lecture will give an overview how highly intense synchrotron radiation is generated by beams of charged particles in high-energy accelerators. In order to set the stage for the rest of the school, the physics of the radiation emission process and the dynamics of the charged particle beams will be briefly introduced as well as the types of accelerators that serve as the most intense radiation sources. Several such accelerators are available on site and will serve as examples.
      Speaker: Pedro Fernandes Tavares (MAX-IV Laboratory)
      Slides
    • 09:45 10:30
      Accelerator Physics Introduction 1/2 45m
      This course will describe 1) Basic relations (units, kinetic energy, 4-momentum, relativistic particle); 2) Lorentz force & Maxwell’s equations; 3) types of accelerators and electron guns; 4) Oscillating EM fields in linacs; 5) Circular accelerators; 6) Synchrotrons and phase stability; 7) Magnets (dipoles, quadrupoles, sextupoles) and 8) focusing properties [NO equation of motion, NO dynamics].
      Speaker: Francesca Curbis (Max-IV Laboratory)
    • 10:30 10:45
      Coffee Break 15m
    • 10:45 11:45
      Accelerator Physics Introduction 2/2 1h
      This course will describe 1) Basic relations (units, kinetic energy, 4-momentum, relativistic particle); 2) Lorentz force & Maxwell’s equations; 3) types of accelerators and electron guns; 4) Oscillating EM fields in linacs; 5) Circular accelerators; 6) Synchrotrons and phase stability; 7) Magnets (dipoles, quadrupoles, sextupoles) and 8) focusing properties [NO equation of motion, NO dynamics].
      Speaker: Francesca Curbis (Max-IV Laboratory)
      Slides
    • 11:45 12:30
      Introduction to Spallation Source 45m
      The European Spallation Source is a Partnership of 17 European Nations committed to the goal of collectively building and operating the world’s most powerful long-pulse source of neutrons with a peak brightness of at least 30 times greater than any of today’s similar facilities. Thus, the ESS will provide the much-desired transformative capabilities for interdisciplinary research in the physical and life sciences. The ESS accelerator high level requirements are to provide a 2.86 ms long proton pulse at 2 GeV at repetition rate of 14 Hz. This represents 5 MW of average beam power with a 4% duty cycle on target. This lecture will introduce the principle of spallation using proton acceleration and based on simple examples. The accelerator components and functions will be described to support the following school lectures on the topic of accelerator technology.
      Speaker: Mats Lindroos (ESS AB)
      Mats Lindroos talk
    • 12:30 14:00
      Lunch Break 1h 30m
    • 14:00 15:45
      Exercises, Accelerator Physics 1h 45m
      Speakers: Galina Skripka (Max-IV Laboratory), Stephen Molloy (European Spallation Source ESS AB), Tessa Charles (Monash University (Australia))
      Slides
    • 15:45 16:00
      Coffee break 15m
    • 16:00 17:00
      Visit Old Max-Lab 1h
      Speaker: Olivia Karlberg (Max-IV Laboratory)
    • 08:45 10:30
      Accelerator Physics Optics & Tools 1h 45m
      This course will describe general electro-magnetic fields and matrices, phase space, beam transport as basis for accelerator science. It will introduce the function and use of dipole and quadruple magnets Magnets (D, Q) and Radio-frequency cavities. This course will describe particle motion in magnetic fields, single particle, betatron motion, dispersion, beams, TWISS, Liouville, resonances. Tools to study those parameters will be introduced.
      Speaker: Sverker Werin (Max-IV Laboratory)
      Book
      Slides
    • 10:30 10:45
      Coffee Break 15m
    • 10:45 12:30
      Accelerator Physics Optics & Tools 1h 45m
      This course will describe general electro-magnetic fields and matrices, phase space, beam transport as basis for accelerator science. It will introduce the function and use of dipole and quadruple magnets Magnets (D, Q) and Radio-frequency cavities. This course will describe particle motion in magnetic fields, single particle, betatron motion, dispersion, beams, TWISS, Liouville, resonances. Tools to study those parameters will be introduced.
      Speaker: Sverker Werin (Max-IV Laboratory)
      Slides
      Winagile code package
    • 12:30 14:00
      Lunch Break 1h 30m
    • 14:00 16:00
      Exercise, computer simulations 2h
      Speakers: Olivia Karlberg (Max-IV Laboratory), Teresia Olsson (Max-IV Laboratory), Tessa Charles (Monash University (Australia))
    • 16:00 17:00
      Instruction for project and examination 1h
      Speaker: Anders Karlsson (Lund University / LTH)
      document
    • 08:45 10:30
      Beam Diagnostics for Particle Accelerators 1h 45m
      Beam diagnostic instruments are the eyes of the accelerator, the best - or even the only - tools that we have to monitor and control the beam. This lectures will give the basics of "what, where and how" of beam diagnostics. Different types of accelerators calls for different diagnostic methods. We will discuss the most important beam parameters that generally are monitored, a few common detector types, and how to analyze and meet the needs of each and every accelerator. Types of parameter: position, intensity, transverse and longitudinal profile, energy. important concepts: resolution and accuracy, invasive or non-invasive, single-shot or multi-shot, common techniques: Faraday cup, pick-up, scintillation and OTR screens, wire scanner, SEM-grid, laser-based instruments.
      Speaker: Maja Olvegård (Uppsala University)
      Slides
    • 10:30 10:45
      Coffee Break 15m
    • 10:45 11:30
      Accelerator Components and Technologies 45m
      This course will describe the different components and technologies used to operate particle accelerators, from the Radio-Frequency Quadrupole, Drift Tube Linac and supraconducting cavities. We will use the example of the ESS proton accelerator and the LHC machine to support the description of accelerator environment and interfaces (e.g. RF systems, cryogenics, vacuum, water, radiation environment). An overview of the life-cycle of accelerator components will illustrate the integration of key-components, from their fabrication, testing, installation to their operation in the tunnel. On this basis, we will also talk on the instrumentation, which are needed to condition, monitor and control the signals to operate safety an accelerator.
      Speaker: Christine Darve (European Spallation Source ESS AB)
      Slides
    • 11:30 12:30
      RF Sources 1h
      The RF sources are power systems that convert electrical power from a standard electrical power grid into RF microwave power, at the desired frequency and amplitude, in order to excite the RF cavities, which in turn will generate the electrical fields that will accelerate the particle beam. The related power chain consists of different components which are very specific and unique at a worldwide scale: the high voltage modulators (power supplies) convert AC low/medium voltage electrical power into high voltage power compatible with RF amplifiers; RF amplifier tubes (klystrons, tetrodes, IOT’s, etc.) convert electrical power into RF microwave power; RF distribution networks (waveguides, circulators, couplers, etc.) transmits the RF power from amplifiers to the final load (RF cavities). In addition to the power chain described above, a sophisticated control system (LLRF) is required in order to assure that the RF power is generated, transmitted and delivered to the loads according to the requirements derived from the accelerator application like duty cycle (Pulsed or Continuous Wave), precision, stability, etc.
      Speaker: Carlos Martins (European Spallation Source)
      Slides
    • 12:30 14:00
      Lunch Break 1h 30m
    • 14:00 17:00
      Visit Max-IV and ESS 3h
      Speakers: Christine Darve (European Spallation Source ESS AB), Joel Andersson (Max-II Laboratory)
      drawings
      more information
      Video
    • 08:45 10:30
      Magnet Technology 1h 45m
      This course will describe the magnets needed in a particle accelerator. We will start out by looking into the basic functions of a classic electromagnet with magnetic flux generated by a current and guided by a magnetic iron frame. Then we will go into details with the basic functions of the bending dipole such as the required field strength and field quality. This will lead to a description on how the iron pole is shaped in order to obtain the desired magnetic performance. Quadrupole magnets and higher order correction multipoles will also be discussed. Magnet properties like hysteresis, eddy currents and iron saturations will be mentioned in order to understand some of the non-linear complexities of electromagnets. On this basis we will talk about the more complicated accelerator magnets such as fast ramped and pulsed magnets like kicker and bumper magnets. High field superconducting magnets and permanent magnet driven green alternatives will also be considered. The tools used for magnetic design and testing of accelerator magnets will be mentioned. Examples will be given on different types of accelerator magnets that have been produced at Danfysik such as the compact MAX-Lab magnets with up to 13 different magnets in one shared iron yoke. The basic function of insertion devices used at free electron laser and synchrotron light facilities and for the generation of intense synchrotron light is illustrated by the multipole wiggler and undulators as compared to radiation from bending magnets. The basic function of high field wiggler is compared to high brilliance undulators and the general features of these devices will be described. Example will be shown of insertion devices like permanent wigglers, in-vacuum cryogenic undulators and the superconducting alternatives.
      Speaker: Franz Bødker Franz Bødker (Danfysik)
      Slides
    • 10:30 10:45
      Coffee Break 15m
    • 10:45 12:30
      Techniques of Vacuum and Basics of High Voltage 1h 45m
      This course will describe: 1) Vacuum: Introduction to basic concepts and units; vacuum regions; residual gas: Maxwell - Boltzmann distribution for energy for residual gas (velocity distribution, average collision distance, molecular layer formation); 2) Basics of vacuum equipment (Pumping speed, conductance, hardware); 3) High voltage use (DC, AC): Forces due to electric and magnetic field (Electric rigidity); HV devices (conditioning, sparking, hardware).
      Speaker: Pauli Heikkinen (Jyväskylä University)
    • 12:30 14:00
      Lunch Break 1h 30m
    • 14:00 15:45
      Exercise, Beam diagnostic, RF cavities and RF sources 1h 45m
      Speakers: Anders Karlsson (Lund University / LTH), Christine Darve (European Spallation Source ESS AB), Maja Olvegård (Uppsala University), Yogi Rutambhara (European Spallation Source)
      document
      Slides
    • 15:45 16:00
      Coffee Break 15m
    • 16:00 17:00
      Project Progress 1h
      Speaker: Anders Karlsson (Lund University / LTH)
    • 08:45 10:10
      Production of Synchrotron Radiation 1h 25m
      This course will describe Radiation, electromagnetic fields, relativity, bending magnet radiation, undulators, wigglers, coherence, bandwidth, diffraction, pulse lengths
      Speaker: Sverker Werin (Lund University)
      Slides
    • 10:10 10:30
      Accelerating Protons 20m
      Speaker: Christine Darve (European Spallation Source ESS AB)
      Slides
      Video
    • 10:30 10:45
      Coffee Break 15m
    • 10:45 11:45
      Medical Application of Electron Accelerators 1h
      This course will describe 1) Short introduction to the basic theory of waveguides, cavities, and linear accelerators; 2) Rationale for radiation therapy (what is cancer, radiation damage, fractionation, therapeutic window); 3) Electron linacs for radiotherapy (beam optics, how to change the energy, and treatment head design).
      Speaker: Lars Præstegaard (Aarhus University Hospital)
      Slides
    • 11:45 12:30
      Medical Application of Proton Accelerators 45m
      This seminar will present the following topics: - Basic theory of the proton cyclotrons (and recap. of proton synchrotrons) - Medical applications of isotope production - Rationale for hadron therapy (Bragg peak, dose distribution, skin dose, biological effectiveness). - Treatment delivery of hadron therapy (gantries, passive scattering, pencil beam scanning, lateral dose penumbra, uncertainties in hadron therapy).
      Speaker: Lars Præstegaard (Aarhus University Hospital)
      Slides
    • 12:30 14:00
      Lunch Break 1h 30m
    • 14:00 15:00
      Applications to Particle Physics and Nuclear Physics 1h
      The study the fundamental particles and the forces of nature is the reason particle accelerators were invented about hundred years ago. This field has driven the development of accelerator technology up to today. I will discuss the requirements that particle physics and nuclear physics impose on particle accelerator design, and I will review some of the major discoveries achieved by particle accelerator experiments
      Speaker: Erik Adli (Oslo University)
      Slides
    • 15:00 16:00
      Pushing the frontiers 1h
      The users communities continuously ask for improved accelerator parameters; higher beam energy, better beam brilliance and higher beam power. Clever accelerator physicists have throughout history invented new theory and better technology in order to overcome limitations in particle accelerator performance. In this tutorial we together go through a few of the main limitations of current accelerator technology and we discuss ideas and research aimed to overcome these limitations.
      Speaker: Erik Adli (Oslo University)
      Slides
    • 16:00 16:20
      NPAS as a feeder to JUAS 20m
      Speaker: Louis Rinolfi (Joint University Accelerator School)
      Slides
    • 09:00 13:00
      Examination

      Information for the presentations:
      -We start the presentations at 9.00. I will make sure that the E-door (the entrance to the right) will be open from 8.30. The presentations should be done at 1 pm.
      -For each group we have allocated 15 minutes presentation+5 minutes for questions and change of group.
      -If someone needs to leave earlier than 1 pm we can let that group have its presentation before the coffee break.
      -You can either bring your presentation on a computer that we hook up, or on a USB.
      -We take a coffee break after five presentations.
      -When all presentations are done we will have 20 minutes for evaluations of the summer school.
      -We end the Summer school with a lunch in the lunch room. There will be sandwiches and something to drink.

    • 13:00 13:20
      Photos 20m
      Speakers: Anders Borgström (LTH), Anders Karlsson (LTH), Christine Darve (European Spallation Source ESS AB), Heikkinen Pauli
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